Grade 3 Common Core Standards for
Mathematics
The Common Core State Standards provide
a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected
to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to
help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant
to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our
young people need for success in college and careers. With
American students fully prepared for the future, our communities
will be best positioned to compete successfully in the global
economy. 
In Grade 3, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1)
developing understanding of multiplication and division and strategies
for multiplication and division within 100; (2) developing understanding
of fractions, especially unit fractions (fractions with numerator 1);
(3) developing understanding of the structure of rectangular arrays and
of area; and (4) describing and analyzing twodimensional shapes.

1. Students develop an understanding of the meanings of
multiplication and division of whole numbers through activities and
problems involving equalsized groups, arrays, and area models;
multiplication is finding an unknown product, and division is
finding an unknown factor in these situations. For equalsized group
situations, division can require finding the unknown number of
groups or the unknown group size. Students use properties of
operations to calculate products of whole numbers, using
increasingly sophisticated strategies based on these properties to
solve multiplication and division problems involving singledigit
factors. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, students
learn the relationship between multiplication and division.

2. Students develop an understanding of fractions, beginning with
unit fractions. Students view fractions in general as being built
out of unit fractions, and they use fractions along with visual
fraction models to represent parts of a whole. Students understand
that the size of a fractional part is relative to the size of the
whole. For example, 1/2 of the paint in a small bucket could be less
paint than 1/3 of the paint in a larger bucket, but 1/3 of a ribbon
is longer than 1/5 of the same ribbon because when the ribbon is
divided into 3 equal parts, the parts are longer than when the
ribbon is divided into 5 equal parts. Students are able to use
fractions to represent numbers equal to, less than, and greater than
one. They solve problems that involve comparing fractions by using
visual fraction models and strategies based on noticing equal
numerators or denominators.

3. Students recognize area as an attribute of twodimensional
regions. They measure the area of a shape by finding the total
number of samesize units of area required to cover the shape
without gaps or overlaps, a square with sides of unit length being
the standard unit for measuring area. Students understand that
rectangular arrays can be decomposed into identical rows or into
identical columns. By decomposing rectangles into rectangular arrays
of squares, students connect area to multiplication, and justify
using multiplication to determine the area of a rectangle.

4. Students describe, analyze, and compare properties of
twodimensional shapes. They compare and classify shapes by their
sides and angles, and connect these with definitions of shapes.
Students also relate their fraction work to geometry by expressing
the area of part of a shape as a unit fraction of the whole.
Grade 3 Overview

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and
division.

Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship
between multiplication and division.

Multiply and divide within 100.

Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and
explain patterns in arithmetic.

Number and Operations in Base Ten

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to
perform multidigit arithmetic.

Number and Operations—Fractions

Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.

Measurement and Data

Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals
of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.Represent and
interpret data.

Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate
area to multiplication and to addition.

Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter as an attribute of
plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures.

Geometry

Reason with shapes and their attributes.

Mathematical Practices

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of
others.

4. Model with mathematics.

5. Use appropriate tools strategically.

6. Attend to precision.

7. Look for and make use of structure.

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.